E-mail: info@tournepalia.com Phone: 977-1-4701211 Thamel, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Nepal:- Upper Mustang
  • Nepal:- Gokyo Lake by Lukla
  • Nepal:- Muktinath tour - 6 days
  • Nepal:- Muktinath tour
  • Nepal:- Mount Kailash
  • Nepal:- Mt. Kailash - 14 days
  • Nepal:- 14 days Mount Kailash
  • Nepal:- Mt. Kailash by kerung
  • Nepal:- Mt. Kailash - 14 days
  • Nepal:- Trekking to Rara- 16 days
  • Nepal:- Dolpo Trek and Rara Lake- 32 Days
  • Nepal:- Lord Vishnu
  • Nepal:- Lord Shiva
  • Nepal:- Langtang and Gosaikunda Trek - 14 Days
  • Nepal:- Langtang and Gosaikunda Trek - 20 Days
  • Nepal:- Langtang, Gosainkunda & Helambu Trekking - 17 Days
  • Nepal:- Mardi Himal Base Camp Trek - 11 Days
  • Tibet:- Kathmandu Lhasa Motorbike Tour - 12 Days
  • Tibet:- Motor Biking in Tibet starts from Kathmandu - 18 Days
  • Tibet:- Everest Base Camp through Tibet - 12 Days Fly In Drive Out
  • Tibet:- Tibet Lhasa Tour - 07 Days fly in fly out
  • Tibet:- Everest Base Camp through Tibet- 08 Days fly in fly out
  • Nepal:- Mardi Himal and Poon Hill Trek - 16 Days
  • Nepal:- Arnapurna Poon Hill Trek - 11 Days
  • Nepal:- Arnapurna Poon Hill Trek - 9 Days
  • Nepal:- Arnapurna Base Camp Trek including Mardi and Poon Hill - 20 Days
  • Nepal:- Arnapurna Base Camp Trek including Mardi - 18 Days
  • Nepal:- Arnapurna Base Camp Trek - 14 Days
  • Nepal:- Arnapurna Base Camp Trek - 16 Days
  • Nepal:- Golden Triangle through Cycle - 12 Days
  • Nepal:- Golden Triangle through Cycle - 10 Days
  • Nepal:- Adventures for beginners - 8 Days
  • Nepal:- Champion of adventure - 15 Days
  • Nepal:- Champion of Adventures - 8 Days
  • Nepal:- Kathmandu Chitawan Motorbike - 9 Days
  • Nepal:- Kathmandu Chitawan Bicycle - 12 Days
  • Nepal:- Jomsom, Mustang through Motorbike - 12 Days
  • Nepal:- Kathmandu Pokhara through Moroebike -8 Days
  • Nepal:- Kathmandu Pokhara through Bicycle -10 Days
  • Nepal:- Everest Base Camp Trek - 20 Days
  • Nepal:- Everest Base Camp Trek - 17 Days
  • Nepal:- Kathmandu valley Cultural Trekking Trail - 5 Days
  • Nepal:- Bouddhist Cultural Tour - 8 Days
  • Nepal:- Buddhist Circuit Tour - 7 Days
  • Nepal:- BUDDHIST PILGRIMAGE IN NEPAL - 7 Days
  • Nepal:- HINDU PILGRIMAGE TOURS - 11 Days

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Destination Nepal

 

Nepal, the country of Mount Everest and the birthplace of Lord Buddha, hosts 7 of the World Heritage sites listed by UNESCO. With more than 100 spoken languages and religiously diverse ethnic groups, Nepal is a rare example of religious tolerance where everyone is welcome. 

Be it the snowcapped mountains or the crystal clear lakes; ancient temples or serene monasteries; electrifying safari at National parks or welcoming homestay, there is always abundant exuberance and adventure for everyone, every occasion and every season.

Visit Nepal to discover the majestic grandeur of this Himalayan nation. Embark to explore nature's paradise and experience the genuine hospitality, unique culture and mystical colors of life.

  • Nepal is placed among the top trekking destinations (35 trekking destinations) in the world by National Geographic Society and Lonely Planet
  • Nepal is considered as the land of paradise for the adventure groups especially trekking, mountain expedition and hunting
  • Out of 326 mountains opened for mountaineering, 112 mountains have not climbed yet. They are waiting some brave foots to lose their virginity

Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, has been voted as the best 25 destinations for 2016 by TripAdvisor.

-Rough guides, a famous travel guide, has listed Nepal as the No.1 destination to visit in 2016.

-Mount Everest, the world's highest mountain, lies in Nepal. 8 out of the 14 highest mountains in the world also lie in Nepal. Thanks to these mountains as we have more than 6000 rivers and are called as “Water Towers of South Asia’’

-Nepal is the birth place of Lord Buddha who was the founder of Buddhism and the messenger of peace in the world.

-Nepal is the first and only country in Asia to provide explicit protections for LGBT people from discrimination,

violence, and abuse.

  • Elephant Polo World Cup, founded by the World Elephant Polo Association and is played only in Nepal
  • Nepalese Flag is the only national flag in the world which is triangular in shape. Each triangles representing the Himalaya and both Hinduism and Buddhism faith .
  • Kumari is the only living Goddess of the entire world where live human is considered as God and is worshipped everyday. She is the Hindu Goddess selected from Buddhist clan.
  • It is the melting pot of Hindhuism and Buddhism where every religions are respected and followed by all the citizens of the nation and is offered as holiday during that festival
  • The tiny kingdom Nepal consists of 103 ethnics groups and 93 spoken languages where the no of Gods and Goddess are more than the population of the country
  • Nepal is a home to many natural and cultural UNESCO sites where we can observe 5 UNESCO sites within 20 KM of road distance .
  • The diversity includes more than 850 varities of birds, 4 percentage of mammals and 9 percentage of birds through out the world and the most of the glaciers more than 20 percentage is owned by the country
  • Some of the rare animals like one horned rhino and Royal Bengal Tiger is available in Nepal

NEPAL

The land of Himalayas popularly known as the birth place of Buddha and Kingdom of BirGorkhalis is a landlocked country; area of 147181 square kilometers is situated between the two giants’ country, India and China. The meeting point of ice cold of Himalayas and the steamy heat of Indian plains, the placid Himalayan crystalline rivers, lakes, waterfalls, pure culture and tradition from the centuries back, diversity of landscape and vegetation and even a small glimpses of the people whatever we see makes the small land of own kingdom with the bigger heart of hospitality.

Geography

Nepal is located in South Asia between China in the north and India in the south, east and west. While the total land area is 147,181 sq. km including water area of the country that is 3,830 sq. km. The geographical coordinates are 28°00′N 84°00′E. Nepal falls in the temperate zone north of the Tropic of Cancer.Nepal’s ecological zones run east to west about 800 km along its Himalayan axis, 150 to 250 km north to south, and is vertically intersected by the river systems. The country can be divided into three main geographical regions: Himalayan region, mid hill region and Terai region. The highest point in the country is Mt. Everest (8,848 m) while the lowest point is in the Terai plains of Kechana Kalan in Jhapa (60 m). The Terai region, with width of ranging 26 to 32 km and altitude ranging from 60 -305 m, occupies about 17 percent of total land area of the country. Kechana Kalan, the lowest point of the country with an altitude of 60 m, lies in Jhapa district of the eastern Terai.The southern lowland Terai continues to the Bhabar belt covered with the Char KoseJhadi forests known for rich wildlife. Further north, the Siwalik zone (700 – 1,500 m) and the Mahabharat range (1,500 – 2,700 m) give way to the Duns (valleys), such as Trijuga, Sindhuli, Chitwan, Dang and Surkhet. The Midlands (600 – 3,500 m), north of the Mahabharat range is where the two beautiful valleys of Kathmandu and Pokhara lie covered in terraced rice fields, and surrounded by forested watersheds. The Himalayas (above 3,000 m) comprises mountains, alpine pastures and temperate forests limited by the tree-line (4,000 m) and snow line (5,500 m). Eight of the 14 eight-thousanders of the world lie in Nepal: Sagarmatha or Mount Everest (8,848 m), Kanchenjunga (8,586 m), Lhotse (8,516 m), Makalu (8,463 m), Cho Oyu (8,201m), Dhaulagiri (8,167 m), Manaslu (8,163 m) and Annapurna (8,091 m). The inner Himalayan valley (above 3,600 m) such as Mustang and Dolpa are cold deserts sharing topographical characteristics with the Tibetan plateau.Nepal holds the so called “waters towers of South Asia” with its 6,000 rivers which are snow-fed or dependent on rain. The perennial rivers include Mahakali, Karnali, Narayani and Koshi rivers originating in the Himalayas. Medium-sized rivers like Babai, West Rapti, Bagmati, Kamla, Kankai and Mechi originate in the Midlands and Mahabharat range. A large number of seasonal streams, mostly originating in Siwaliks, flow across the Terai. Of 163 wetlands documented, the nine globally recognized Ramsar sites are: KoshiTappu Wildlife Reserve, Beeshazarital (Chitwan), Jagdishpur Reservoir (Kapilvastu) Ghodaghodi Tal (Kailali) in the Terai, and Gokyo (Solukhumbu), Phoksundo (Dolpa), Rara (Mugu) and Mai Pokhari (Ilam) in the mountain region.There are more than 30 natural caves in the country out of which only a few are accessible by road. Maratika Cave (also known as Haleshi) is a pilgrimage site associated with Buddhism and Hinduism. Siddha Cave is near Bimalnagar along the Kathmandu-Pokhara highway. Pokhara is also known for caves namely Bats’ shed, Batulechar, Gupteswar, PataleChhango. The numerous caves around Lo Manthang in Mustang include Luri and TashiKabum which house ancient murals and chhortens dating back to the 13th century.

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/geography.html#sthash.UzUY0n0k.dpuf

 

PEOPLE

The population of Nepal was recorded to be about 26.62 million according to a recent survey done by the Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal.  The population comprises of about a 101 ethnic groups speaking over 92 languages. The distinction in caste and ethnicity is understood more easily with a view of customary layout of the population.Though, there exist numerous dialects, the language of unification is the national language, Nepali. Nepali is the official language of the state, spoken and understood by majority of the population. Multiple ethnic groups have their own mother tongues. English is spoken by many in Government and business offices. It is the mode of education in most private schools of Kathmandu and some other cities.

Northern Himalayan People: In the northern region of the Himalayas are the Tibetan-speaking groups namely Sherpas, Dolpa-pas, Lopas, Baragaonlis, Manangis. The Sherpas are mainly found in the east, Solu and Khumbu region; the Baragaonlis and Lopas live in the semi-deserted areas of Upper and Lower Mustang in the Tibetan rain-shadow area; the Manangis live in Manang district area; while the Dolpa-pas live in Dolpa district of west Nepal.

Middle Hills and Valley People: Several ethnic groups live in the middle hills and valleys. Among them are the Magars, Gurungs, Tamangs, Sunuwars, Newars, Thakalis, Chepangs, Brahmins, Chhetris and Thakuris. There are also occupational castes namely: Damai (tailor), Sarki (cobbler), Kami (blacksmith) and Sunar (goldsmiths).

Ethnic Diversity in the Kathmandu Valley: Kathmandu Valley represents a cultural cauldron of the country, where, people from varied backgrounds have come together to present a melting pot. The natives of the Kathmandu Valley are the Newars. Newari culture is an integration of both Hinduism and Buddhism. The Newars of Kathmandu Valley were traders or farmers by occupation in the old days.

Terai People: The main ethnic groups in Terai are Tharus, Darai, Kumhal, Majhi and other groups. They speak north Indian dialects like Maithili, Bhojpuri. Owing to the fertile plains of Terai, most inhabitants live on agriculture. There are, however, some occupational castes like Majhi (fisherman), Kumhal (potter) and Danuwar (cart driver).

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/people.html#sthash.WzBltpr2.dpuf

Climate

Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Nepal has five seasons: spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter.

In the Terai (south Nepal), summer temperatures exceed 37° C and higher in some areas, winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai. In mountainous regions, hills and valleys, summers are temperate while winter temperatures can plummet under sub zero. The Kathmandu Valley has a pleasant climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19°C – 35°C and 2°C – 12°C respectively.

Good to know is that on average temperatures drop 6°C for every 1,000 m you gain in altitude. 

The Himalayas act as a barrier to the cold winds blowing from Central Asia in winter, and forms the northern boundary of the monsoon wind patterns. Eighty percent of all the rain in Nepal is received during the monsoon (June-September). Winter rains are more pronounced in the western hills. The average annual rainfall is 1,600 mm, but it varies by eco-climatic zones, such as 3,345 mm in Pokhara and below 300 mm in Mustang.

There is no seasonal constraint on traveling in and through Nepal. Even in December and January, when winter is at its severest, there are compensating bright sun and brilliant views. As with most of the trekking areas in Nepal, the best time to visit are during spring and autumn. Spring is the time for rhododendrons while the clearest skies are found after the monsoon in October and November. However, Nepal can be visited the whole year round.

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/climate.html#sthash.Qx0bNKT2.dpuf

 

Average temperatures and rainfall during peak summer and winter in three most popular tourist areas:

  Place

  Summer (May, June, July)

  Winter (Dec, Jan, Feb)

  Max (°C)   

  Min (°C)   

  Rain (mm)   

  Max (°C)   

  Min (°C)   

  Rain (mm)   

  Kathmandu   

  28.1

  19.5

  312

  19.3

  3.0

  15.4

  Pokhara

  29.7

  21.3

  829.7

  20.3

  7.7

  26.3

  Chitwan

  33.0

  25.3

  404.0

  24.1

  8.3

  13.8

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/climate.html#sthash.Qx0bNKT2.dpuf

For more information about Nepal’s climatic conditions, please visit the official web site of the Department of Hydrology & Meteorology, Ministry of Environment. - See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/climate.html#sthash.Qx0bNKT2.dpuf

 

WILDLIFE

Of the total number of species found globally, 3.96 percent mammals, 3.72 percent butterflies and 8.9 percent of birds. Wildlife of Nepal is officially classified into two main categories: common and protected. The common category lists such species as common leopard, spotted deer, Himalayan tahr, blue sheep and others. These species are commonly seen in the wild. The protected species include 26 mammals, nine birds and three reptiles. These rare animals are confined to their prime habitats.  

Please click Protected Species for details. 

The endemic fauna are: Himalayan field mouse, spiny babbler, Nepali kalij, 14 herpetofauna, and six types of fishes.

Mammals: Nepal has 185 species of mammals found in various parts of the country. Found in Nepal’s dense Terai jungles are exotic animals like the Asiatic elephant, the one-horned rhinoceros, the Royal Bengal tiger among others. Also found here are the leopard, monkey, langur, hyena, jackal, wild boar, antelope, wild cat, wolf, sloth bear, chital or spotted deer and barking deer. Wild buffalo locally called “Arna” is found in the KoshiTappu region. The western Terai jungles of Suklaphanta is home of the of swamp deer, while the endangered blackbucks are found in the Bardia region. Nepal Government has made an effort to preserve blackbucks by declaring an area of 15.95 sq. km. in Bardia as Blackbuck Conservation Area. Nepal even has its own variety of dolphins found in the fresh waters of Narayani and Karnali rivers. The Himalayan region is also home to the elusive snow leopard and the red panda. Red panda, a rare sight because of its shy nature, may be found from Langtang region to Kanchenjunga region. Other mammals that live in high altitude areas are yak, blue sheep, Himalayan tahr and musk deer.  While otters are found in the Rara region north west, the Dhorpatan hunting grounds is home of the blue sheep and Himalayan tahr.

Reptiles: Nepal has two indigenous species of crocodile: the fish eating gharial with the long narrow snout and the marsh mugger which is omnivorous, eating anything it can catch. A very successful breeding project has brought the gharial back from extinction. Some of the snakes found in Nepal are: cobras, kraits, vipers and the Indian python. Other reptiles found in the country are turtles and monitor lizards. Some of these reptiles can be seen in the Chitwan National Park and Bardia National Park.

Birds: Nepal has more than 850 recorded species of birds. Amazingly, half of these birds can be seen in and around the Kathmandu valley alone. The hills around the valley especially Nagarjun, Godavari and Phulchowki are popular birding areas. Phulchowki at 2,760 m boasts about 90 bird species including the endemic spiny babbler, which was thought to be extinct until it was spotted in Nepal. Another rare species of bird, the red-headed trogan, was also sighted here in April 2000.

National parks like Chitwan and Bardia harbor a wide variety of birds too. In Chitwan, endangered vultures are being protected from contaminated food by establishing “Vulture Restaurant” which feeds them safe carcasses. The KoshiTappu region is home to a large species of resident and migratory birds. It has about 26 varieties of ducks alone. About 485 species have been sighted here, including black ibis, honey kites, ospreys, black headed orioles, peregrine falcon, partridges, ruddy shelduck, storks, vultures and eagles among others.In the higher Himalayan region are found different species of the raptors and birds of prey. Nepal’s national bird, the Danphe or impeyen pheasant, is also found in the Himalayan region. A rare bird known as jerdon’sbaza was sighted in Nepal. Over the past few years a conservation group has worked specifically in the Lumbini area to conserve the sarus crane.

For more information about Nepal’s wildlife, Please visit: http://www.dnpwc.gov.np/ (official web site of the Department of National Parks & Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests & Soil Conservation).

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/wildlife.html#sthash.TAO8p4AF.dpuf

-Nepal is one of the largest concentrations of Royal Bengal Tiger in the world

-Second largest population of one horned rhino are found in Nepal

-Nepal has one of the best habitat for snow leopard

-Shukla Phanta is the West Nepal harbours the world largest heard of swamp deer

- It is said that Nepal has the largest moth in the world (Atlas Moth)

-Some of the largest wild honey bees are found in Nepal

-The only nature breeding ground of the Long Snouted Gavial crocodile exists in Nepal

-Nepal constitutes more than 8.5% of the world’s total bird species

-Nepal constitutes more than 850 species of birds, which arguably more than the whole continent of Europe and North Africa combined .

-Spiny Babbler is the only bird that is found in Nepal

-Nepal has 4.2% of the world’s butterfly species which is oover 500 species of butterflies.

 

PLANTS

Of the total number of species found globally, Nepal possesses 2.80 percent plants. Record from 2006 shows that Nepal has 6,391 flowering plant species, representing 1,590 genera and 231 families. Nepal’s share of flowering plant species is 2.76 percent of the global total compared to earlier records of 2.36 percent. Nepal’s share of pteriodophytes is 5.15 percent compared to earlier records of 4.45 percent.

There are 2,532 species of vascular plants represented by 1,034 genera and 199 families in the protected sites. Some 130 endemic species are found in the protected sites.

For ecology and vegetation purpose Nepal could be divided into four floristic regions i.e. (a) western (b) north-western (c) central, and (d) eastern, and bio-climatically these are broken down into twenty regions from humid tropical climate to the arid, alpine regions.

There are 399 endemic flowering plants in Nepal of which about 63 percent are from the high mountains, 38 percent from the mid hills, and only 5 percent from the Terai and Siwaliks. Similarly, the central region contains 66 percent of the total endemic species followed by 32 percent in the western and 29 percent in the eastern regions.

Medicinal Plants: The Himalayas are famous for medicinal plants and have even been mentioned in the Aurveda. Many of the herbs and plants found in the Himlayas are used in traditional healing systems like Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic, Amchi etc. Some of these plants are even used for allopathic medicine. Medicinal plants are abundantly found in: theTerai region of Nawalparasi, Chitwan, Bardia, Dhanusha, mid hill region of Makhwanpur, Syangja, Kaski, Lamgjung, Dolakha, Parvat, Ilam, Ramechhap, Nuwakot, and the Himalayan region of Dolpa, Mugu, Humla, Jumla, Manang, Mustang and Solukhumbu.

Orchids: In ancient Rome, Theophrastus, a student of Plato, was intrigued by the sight of a plant with a pair of roots. Orchis was the name he gave them, the Greek word for testicles. Worldwide, there are some 500 to 600 genera and some 20,000 to 35,000 names, the largest of all plant families, and out of this, Nepal has 57 genera (27 Terrestrials and 30 Epiphytic) with a few Lithophytes.Nepal is endowed with an incredible variety of orchids scattered across the country. Dedrobium is the largest species, followed by Habenaria and Bulbophyllum. Anthogonium, Hemipilia and Lusia are some of the other varieties amongst the nearly two dozen single species families.

For more information about Nepal’s plant resources, Please visit: http://www.dpr.gov.np/ (official web site of the Department of Plant Resources, Ministry of Forests & Soil Conservation).

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/plants.html#sthash.wAhpLt8w.dpuf

-Nepal occupies only 0.1% of the Earth’s landmass, but as per the size of the country, she possesses one of the riches genetic biodiversity in the world

-Nepal has the world’s maximum physiographic and climatic diversity ranging from the tropical to Nivaltype( permanent snow)

-Kaligandaki is the older than Himalayas. Therefore, it acts as a major ecological dividing line of the whole eastern and western Himalayas

-Because of its outstanding altitudinal variation, there are many opportunities to farm any plants from any parts of the world in Nepal

-Nepal is Amazon of Asia. The hidden treasure of its rich biodiversity is not yet fully explored. Many new species could be discovered from Nepal

-Nepal harbours nearly 6000 species of flowering plants which covers around 2.4%of the world’s total

-36% of the world’s Meconopsi species’ poppy’ including Blue Poppies are found in Nepal of which four are endemic, only to be found in Nepal. In Nepal, one of the Blue poppy grows as high as 5400 meters’ altitude. This is perhaps one of the highest limits for the poppy to be found in the world

-Edelweiss is the Austria’s national flower. In Austria, it is almost extinct in the wild but found abundantly in Langtang valley.

-Nepal has more thhan 360 species of orchid which constitute over 2% of the world’s orchid.

-Nepal comprises 6% of the world’s rhododendron species.

-Over 250 species of the flowering plants are endemic to Nepal (not found elsewhere)

-Nepal has the record of the tallest grassland in the world that exists in Chitwan.

-Sal tree forest (Shorea Robust) in Chitwan is considered as the finest in the world (Champion)

-Dr. Francis Hamilton first initiated plant exploration in Nepal in 1802 in Kathmandu valley followed by Nathanial Wallich in 1820.

-Nepal has one of the richest contribution and distribution of biomaterials in the world. Lots have yet to be explored for the economic benefits of the country.

- World is much sought after Ayurved. Nepal has an incredible wealth of medicacinal and aromatic plants for plants for the preparation of traditional and Ayurvedic medicines.

-Genetic resources related to present day to day crop species of Nepal has tremendous potential for improvement of numerous valuable plants.

CULTURE

Customs and traditions differ from one part of Nepal to another. A conglomeration lies in capital city Kathmandu where cultures are blending to form a national identity. Kathmandu Valley has served as the country’s cultural metropolis since the unification of Nepal in the 18th Century.A prominent factor in a Nepali’s everyday life is religion. Adding color to the lives of Nepalis are festivals the year round which they celebrate with much pomp and joy. Food plays an important role in the celebration of these festivals.

Religion: Nepal was declared a secular country by the Parliament on May 18, 2006. Religions practiced in Nepal are: Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism, Sikhism, Bon, ancestor worship and animism. The majority of Nepalis are either Hindus or Buddhism. The two have co-existed in harmony through centuries.

Buddha is widely worshipped by both Buddhists and Hindus of Nepal. The five DhyaniBuddhas; Vairochana, Akshobhaya, Rathasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi, represent the five basic elements: earth, fire, water, air and ether. Buddhist philosophy conceives these deities to be the manifestations of Sunya or absolute void. Mahakaala and Bajrayogini are Vajrayana Buddhist deities worshipped by Hindus as well.

Hindu Nepalis worship the ancient Vedic gods. Bramha the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer, are worshipped as the Supreme Hindu Trinity. People pray to the Shiva Linga or the phallic symbol of Lord Shiva in most Shiva temples. Shakti, the dynamic element in the female counterpart of Shiva, is highly revered and feared. 

Mahadevi, Mahakali, Bhagabati, Ishwari are some of the names given. Kumari, the Virgin Goddess, also represents Shakti.Other popular deities are Ganesh for luck, Saraswati for knowledge, Lakshmi for wealth and Hanuman for protection. Krishna, believed to be the human incarnation of Lord Vishnu is also worshipped widely. Hindu holy scripts Bhagawat Gita, Ramayan and Mahabharat are widely read in Nepal. Vedas, Upanishads and other holy scriptures are read by well learned Brahmin Pundits during special occasions.

Customs: The diversity in Nepal in terms of ethnicity again makes room for various sets of customs. Most of these customs go back to the Hindu, Buddhist or other religious traditions. Among them, the rules of marriage are particularly interesting. Traditional marriages call for deals arranged by parents after the boy or girl come of age.

Nepalis do not eat beef. There are several reasons for this, one being that the Hindus worship cow. Cow is also the national animal of Nepal. Another interesting concept among Nepalis is division of pure and impure. “Jutho” referring to food or material touched by another’s mouth directly or indirectly, is considered impure by Nepalis. Nepalis consider cow dung to be pure for cleansing purposes. During menstruation women are considered impure and hence, are kept in seclusion until their fourth day purification bath.Nepal is a patriarchal society. Men usually go out to work while women are homemakers. However, in cities, roles can differ. Most Nepalis abide by the caste system in living habits and marriage. Rural Nepal is mostly agrarian, while some aspects of urban life carry glitz and glamour of the ultra-modern world.

Food: Nepal does not have a distinct cooking style. However, food habits differ depending on the region. Nepali food has been influenced by Indian and Tibetan styles of cooking. Authentic Nepali taste is found in Newari and Thakai cuisines. Most Nepalis do not use cutlery but eat with their right hand.The regular Nepali meal is dal (lentil soup), bhat (boiled rice) and tarkari (curried vegetables), often accompanied by achar (pickle). Curried meat is very popular, but is saved for special occasions, as it is relatively more expensive. Momos (steamed or fried dumplings) deserve a mention as one of the most popular snack among Nepalis. Rotis (flat bread) and dhedo (boiled flour) also make meals in some homes.

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/culture.html#sthash.7SDZeT9K.dpuf

- Nepal is the future of Asia’s medieval past

-Kathmandu has one of the richest Buddhist icons in the world

- Religious tolerance and cultural harmony is the living force of the Nepalese society

-Kathmandu is the living museums of the world and is considered as the city of temples

- Not a single drop of blood is shed in the name of religious and ethnic riot

- When America and Australia was not ever born as a nation, Nepal built finest monuments which are now listed in World Heritages Sites

-The style of Pagoda was introduced in China and beyond by Nepalese Architect Araniko in 12thcentury . Legend said that Chinese emperor Kublai Khan invited Nepalese architectures to build his palace Xanadu

-The United Nation has agreed the proposal of developing Lumbini as a World Peace City

-Nepl is known as land of living Goddess

-Nepal is the country which has more festivals in a year than days in a calendar

-NEPAL IS THE LAND OF VICTOROUS Gorkhas

-Nepal is the birth place of Lord Gautam Buddha

-Birthplace of Janaki Sita

-Fountain of World Peace , 2nd World Buddhist Summit

-Dolpo in Nepal is the last stronghold of Bonopo religion

-Mystic Bajrayana ; an important Buddhist sect is found only in Nepal

-Nepal has many gods and goddess as many people, as many temple as many houses and as many festivals as many days of the years

HISTORY

Records mention the Gopalas and Mahishapalas believed to have been the earliest rulers with their capital at Matatirtha, the south-west corner of the Kathmandu Valley. From the 7th or 8th Century B.C. the Kirantis are said to have ruled the valley. Their famous King Yalumber is even mentioned in the epic, ‘Mahabharat’. Around 300 A.D. the Lichhavis arrived from northern India and overthrew the Kirantis. One of the legacies of the Lichhavis is the Changu Narayan Temple near Bhaktapur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site (Culture), which dates back to the 5th Century. In the early 7th Century, Amshuvarma, the first Thakuri king took over the throne from his father-in-law who was a Lichhavi. He married off his daughter Bhrikuti to the famous Tibetan King TsongTsenGampo thus establishing good relations with Tibet. The Lichhavis brought art and architecture to the valley but the golden age of creativity arrived in 1200 A.D with the Mallas.

During their 550 year rule, the Mallas built numerous temples and splendid palaces with picturesque squares. It was also during their rule that society and the cities became well organized; religious festivals were introduced and literature, music and art were encouraged. After the death of YakshaMalla, the valley was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu (Kantipur), Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon) and Patan (Lalitpur). Around this time, the Nepal as we know it today was divided into about 46 independent principalities. One among these was the kingdom of Gorkha with a Shah ruler. Much of Kathmandu Valley’s history around this time was recorded by Capuchin friars who lived in the valley on their way in and out of Tibet.

An ambitious Gorkha King named Prithvi Narayan Shah embarked on a conquering mission that led to the defeat of all the kingdoms in the valley (including Kirtipur which was an independent state) by 1769. Instead of annexing the newly acquired states to his kingdom of Gorkha, Prithvi Narayan decided to move his capital to Kathmandu establishing the Shah dynasty which ruled unified Nepal from 1769 to 2008.

The history of the Gorkha state goes back to 1559 when Dravya Shah established a kingdom in an area chiefly inhabited by Magars. During the 17th and early 18th centuries, Gorkha continued a slow expansion, conquering various states while forging alliances with others. Prithvi Narayan dedicated himself at an early age to the conquest of the Kathmandu Valley. Recognizing the threat of the British Raj in India, he dismissed European missionaries from the country and for more than a century, Nepal remained in isolation.

During the mid-19th Century Jung Bahadur Rana became Nepal’s first prime minister to wield absolute power relegating the Shah king to mere figureheads. He started a hereditary reign of the Rana Prime Ministers that lasted for 104 years. The Ranas were overthrown in a democracy movement of the early 1950s with support from the-then  monarch of Nepal, King Tribhuvan. Soon after the overthrow of the Ranas, King Tribhuvan was reinstated as the Head of the State. In early 1959, Tribhuvan’s son King Mahendra issued a new constitution, and the first democratic elections for a national assembly were held. The Nepali Congress Party was victorious and their leader, Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala formed a government and served as prime minister. But by 1960, King Mahendra had changed his mind and dissolved Parliament, dismissing the first democratic government.

After many years of struggle when the political parties were banned, they finally mustered enough courage to start a People’s Movement in 1990. Paving way for democracy, the then-King Birendra accepted constitutional reforms and established a multiparty parliament with King as the Head of State and an executive Prime Minister. In May 1991, Nepal held its first parliamentary elections. In February 1996, the Maoist parties declared People’s War against monarchy and the elected government.

Then on 1st June 2001, a horrific tragedy wiped out the entire royal family including King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya with many of their closest relatives. With only King Birendra’s brother, Gyanendra and his family surviving, he was crowned the king. King Gyanendra abided by the elected government for some time and then dismissed the elected Parliament to wield absolute power.In April 2006, another People’s Movement was launched jointly by the democratic parties focusing most energy in Kathmandu which led to a 19-day curfew. Eventually, King Gyanendra relinquished his power and reinstated the Parliament.On November 21, 2006, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala and Maoist chairman Prachanda signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2006, committing to democracy and peace for the progress of the country and people. A Constituent Assembly election was held on April 10, 2008. On May 28,2008, the newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240 year-old monarchy. Nepal today has a President as Head of State and a Prime Minister heading the Government.

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/history.html#sthash.mHEiSOTn.dpu

Tourism in Nepal

  • Nepal is the country of the highest mountain and deepest gorges.
  • The third pole of the planet earth is the Mount Everest
  • Nepal is the abode of ‘Eight Thousanders’ (mountains above 8000m)
  • Some of the highest permanent human habitat exists in Nepal
  • Some of the highest placed lakes including Tilicho are found in Nepal
  • Nepal is the second largest hydro power resources in the world
  • Nepal has the largest numbers of Everest summiters
  • ‘Annapurna’ is a Nature’s Amphitheatre’ – Chris Bonington
  • ‘Kathmandu is the Wildest Dream of Kew’- Rudyard Kipling
  • Nepal is one of the best arenas for Extreme and Adventure Sport Tourism such as mountaineering, cannoning, paragliding, parasailing, hot air ballooning, kayaking, rafting, Bungee jumping, high altitude marathon etc.
  • Karnali in Simikot is one of the best rivers in the world for Kayaking and most of the upstream Nepalese rivers offer the best rapids for white water rafting
  • They are always the Nepalese Expatriates who always win the World Famous Otudoor Marathon Qest organized by Mild Seven in Deli in Indonesia
  • Elephant Polo World Cup is only played in Nepal
  • One of the most popular trekking trail in the world is Annapurna Circuit
  • Trekking companies in Nepal are best known professional outfitters in the world tourism market
  • Nepal is one of the few countries, which has many airports as per the size of the nation
  • Nepal has higher number of visitors than any other countries in South Asia
  • Soaltee hotel is listed as one of the 300 best hotels in the world.
  • Dwarika Hotel is awarde as Heritage hotel by PATA
  • Tiger Tops is one of the best Jungle Safari Hotel in Asia
  • Fulbari Resort is one of the Asia;s top Resort hotel

Nepal, the country of Mount Everest and the birthplace of Lord Buddha, hosts 7 of the World Heritage sites listed by UNESCO. With more than 100 spoken languages and religiously diverse ethnic groups, Nepal is a rare example of religious tolerance where everyone is welcome. 

Be it the snowcapped mountains or the crystal clear lakes; ancient temples or serene monasteries; electrifying safari at National parks or welcoming homestay, there is always abundant exuberance and adventure for everyone, every occasion and every season.

Visit Nepal to discover the majestic grandeur of this Himalayan nation. Embark to explore nature's paradise and experience the genuine hospitality, unique culture and mystical colors of life.

  • Nepal is placed among the top trekking destinations (35 trekking destinations) in the world by National Geographic Society and Lonely Planet
  • Nepal is considered as the land of paradise for the adventure groups especially trekking, mountain expedition and hunting
  • Out of 326 mountains opened for mountaineering, 112 mountains have not climbed yet. They are waiting some brave foots to lose their virginity

-Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, has been voted as the best 25 destinations for 2016 by TripAdvisor.

-Rough guides, a famous travel guide, has listed Nepal as the No.1 destination to visit in 2016.

-Mount Everest, the world's highest mountain, lies in Nepal. 8 out of the 14 highest mountains in the world also lie in Nepal. Thanks to these mountains as we have more than 6000 rivers and are called as “Water Towers of South Asia’’

-Nepal is the birth place of Lord Buddha who was the founder of Buddhism and the messenger of peace in the world.

-Nepal is the first and only country in Asia to provide explicit protections for LGBT people from discrimination,

violence, and abuse.

  • Elephant Polo World Cup, founded by the World Elephant Polo Association and is played only in Nepal
  • Nepalese Flag is the only national flag in the world which is triangular in shape. Each triangles representing the Himalaya and both Hinduism and Buddhism faith .
  • Kumari is the only living Goddess of the entire world where live human is considered as God and is worshipped everyday. She is the Hindu Goddess selected from Buddhist clan.
  • It is the melting pot of Hindhuism and Buddhism where every religions are respected and followed by all the citizens of the nation and is offered as holiday during that festival
  • The tiny kingdom Nepal consists of 103 ethnics groups and 93 spoken languages where the no of Gods and Goddess are more than the population of the country
  • Nepal is a home to many natural and cultural UNESCO sites where we can observe 5 UNESCO sites within 20 KM of road distance .
  • The diversity includes more than 850 varities of birds, 4 percentage of mammals and 9 percentage of birds through out the world and the most of the glaciers more than 20 percentage is owned by the country
  • Some of the rare animals like one horned rhino and Royal Bengal Tiger is available in Nepal

NEPAL

The land of Himalayas popularly known as the birth place of Buddha and Kingdom of BirGorkhalis is a landlocked country; area of 147181 square kilometers is situated between the two giants’ country, India and China. The meeting point of ice cold of Himalayas and the steamy heat of Indian plains, the placid Himalayan crystalline rivers, lakes, waterfalls, pure culture and tradition from the centuries back, diversity of landscape and vegetation and even a small glimpses of the people whatever we see makes the small land of own kingdom with the bigger heart of hospitality.

Geography

Nepal is located in South Asia between China in the north and India in the south, east and west. While the total land area is 147,181 sq. km including water area of the country that is 3,830 sq. km. The geographical coordinates are 28°00′N 84°00′E. Nepal falls in the temperate zone north of the Tropic of Cancer.Nepal’s ecological zones run east to west about 800 km along its Himalayan axis, 150 to 250 km north to south, and is vertically intersected by the river systems. The country can be divided into three main geographical regions: Himalayan region, mid hill region and Terai region. The highest point in the country is Mt. Everest (8,848 m) while the lowest point is in the Terai plains of Kechana Kalan in Jhapa (60 m). The Terai region, with width of ranging 26 to 32 km and altitude ranging from 60 -305 m, occupies about 17 percent of total land area of the country. Kechana Kalan, the lowest point of the country with an altitude of 60 m, lies in Jhapa district of the eastern Terai.The southern lowland Terai continues to the Bhabar belt covered with the Char KoseJhadi forests known for rich wildlife. Further north, the Siwalik zone (700 – 1,500 m) and the Mahabharat range (1,500 – 2,700 m) give way to the Duns (valleys), such as Trijuga, Sindhuli, Chitwan, Dang and Surkhet. The Midlands (600 – 3,500 m), north of the Mahabharat range is where the two beautiful valleys of Kathmandu and Pokhara lie covered in terraced rice fields, and surrounded by forested watersheds. The Himalayas (above 3,000 m) comprises mountains, alpine pastures and temperate forests limited by the tree-line (4,000 m) and snow line (5,500 m). Eight of the 14 eight-thousanders of the world lie in Nepal: Sagarmatha or Mount Everest (8,848 m), Kanchenjunga (8,586 m), Lhotse (8,516 m), Makalu (8,463 m), Cho Oyu (8,201m), Dhaulagiri (8,167 m), Manaslu (8,163 m) and Annapurna (8,091 m). The inner Himalayan valley (above 3,600 m) such as Mustang and Dolpa are cold deserts sharing topographical characteristics with the Tibetan plateau.Nepal holds the so called “waters towers of South Asia” with its 6,000 rivers which are snow-fed or dependent on rain. The perennial rivers include Mahakali, Karnali, Narayani and Koshi rivers originating in the Himalayas. Medium-sized rivers like Babai, West Rapti, Bagmati, Kamla, Kankai and Mechi originate in the Midlands and Mahabharat range. A large number of seasonal streams, mostly originating in Siwaliks, flow across the Terai. Of 163 wetlands documented, the nine globally recognized Ramsar sites are: KoshiTappu Wildlife Reserve, Beeshazarital (Chitwan), Jagdishpur Reservoir (Kapilvastu) Ghodaghodi Tal (Kailali) in the Terai, and Gokyo (Solukhumbu), Phoksundo (Dolpa), Rara (Mugu) and Mai Pokhari (Ilam) in the mountain region.There are more than 30 natural caves in the country out of which only a few are accessible by road. Maratika Cave (also known as Haleshi) is a pilgrimage site associated with Buddhism and Hinduism. Siddha Cave is near Bimalnagar along the Kathmandu-Pokhara highway. Pokhara is also known for caves namely Bats’ shed, Batulechar, Gupteswar, PataleChhango. The numerous caves around Lo Manthang in Mustang include Luri and TashiKabum which house ancient murals and chhortens dating back to the 13th century.

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/geography.html#sthash.UzUY0n0k.dpuf

 

PEOPLE

The population of Nepal was recorded to be about 26.62 million according to a recent survey done by the Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal.  The population comprises of about a 101 ethnic groups speaking over 92 languages. The distinction in caste and ethnicity is understood more easily with a view of customary layout of the population.Though, there exist numerous dialects, the language of unification is the national language, Nepali. Nepali is the official language of the state, spoken and understood by majority of the population. Multiple ethnic groups have their own mother tongues. English is spoken by many in Government and business offices. It is the mode of education in most private schools of Kathmandu and some other cities.

Northern Himalayan People: In the northern region of the Himalayas are the Tibetan-speaking groups namely Sherpas, Dolpa-pas, Lopas, Baragaonlis, Manangis. The Sherpas are mainly found in the east, Solu and Khumbu region; the Baragaonlis and Lopas live in the semi-deserted areas of Upper and Lower Mustang in the Tibetan rain-shadow area; the Manangis live in Manang district area; while the Dolpa-pas live in Dolpa district of west Nepal.

Middle Hills and Valley People: Several ethnic groups live in the middle hills and valleys. Among them are the Magars, Gurungs, Tamangs, Sunuwars, Newars, Thakalis, Chepangs, Brahmins, Chhetris and Thakuris. There are also occupational castes namely: Damai (tailor), Sarki (cobbler), Kami (blacksmith) and Sunar (goldsmiths).

Ethnic Diversity in the Kathmandu Valley: Kathmandu Valley represents a cultural cauldron of the country, where, people from varied backgrounds have come together to present a melting pot. The natives of the Kathmandu Valley are the Newars. Newari culture is an integration of both Hinduism and Buddhism. The Newars of Kathmandu Valley were traders or farmers by occupation in the old days.

Terai People: The main ethnic groups in Terai are Tharus, Darai, Kumhal, Majhi and other groups. They speak north Indian dialects like Maithili, Bhojpuri. Owing to the fertile plains of Terai, most inhabitants live on agriculture. There are, however, some occupational castes like Majhi (fisherman), Kumhal (potter) and Danuwar (cart driver).

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Climate

Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with their geographical features. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild. Nepal has five seasons: spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter.

In the Terai (south Nepal), summer temperatures exceed 37° C and higher in some areas, winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai. In mountainous regions, hills and valleys, summers are temperate while winter temperatures can plummet under sub zero. The Kathmandu Valley has a pleasant climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19°C – 35°C and 2°C – 12°C respectively.

Good to know is that on average temperatures drop 6°C for every 1,000 m you gain in altitude. 

The Himalayas act as a barrier to the cold winds blowing from Central Asia in winter, and forms the northern boundary of the monsoon wind patterns. Eighty percent of all the rain in Nepal is received during the monsoon (June-September). Winter rains are more pronounced in the western hills. The average annual rainfall is 1,600 mm, but it varies by eco-climatic zones, such as 3,345 mm in Pokhara and below 300 mm in Mustang.

There is no seasonal constraint on traveling in and through Nepal. Even in December and January, when winter is at its severest, there are compensating bright sun and brilliant views. As with most of the trekking areas in Nepal, the best time to visit are during spring and autumn. Spring is the time for rhododendrons while the clearest skies are found after the monsoon in October and November. However, Nepal can be visited the whole year round.

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/climate.html#sthash.Qx0bNKT2.dpuf

 

Average temperatures and rainfall during peak summer and winter in three most popular tourist areas:

  Place

  Summer (May, June, July)

  Winter (Dec, Jan, Feb)

  Max (°C)   

  Min (°C)   

  Rain (mm)   

  Max (°C)   

  Min (°C)   

  Rain (mm)   

  Kathmandu   

  28.1

  19.5

  312

  19.3

  3.0

  15.4

  Pokhara

  29.7

  21.3

  829.7

  20.3

  7.7

  26.3

  Chitwan

  33.0

  25.3

  404.0

  24.1

  8.3

  13.8

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/climate.html#sthash.Qx0bNKT2.dpuf

For more information about Nepal’s climatic conditions, please visit the official web site of the Department of Hydrology & Meteorology, Ministry of Environment. - See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/climate.html#sthash.Qx0bNKT2.dpuf

WILDLIFE

Of the total number of species found globally, 3.96 percent mammals, 3.72 percent butterflies and 8.9 percent of birds. Wildlife of Nepal is officially classified into two main categories: common and protected. The common category lists such species as common leopard, spotted deer, Himalayan tahr, blue sheep and others. These species are commonly seen in the wild. The protected species include 26 mammals, nine birds and three reptiles. These rare animals are confined to their prime habitats.  

Please click Protected Species for details. 

The endemic fauna are: Himalayan field mouse, spiny babbler, Nepali kalij, 14 herpetofauna, and six types of fishes.

Mammals: Nepal has 185 species of mammals found in various parts of the country. Found in Nepal’s dense Terai jungles are exotic animals like the Asiatic elephant, the one-horned rhinoceros, the Royal Bengal tiger among others. Also found here are the leopard, monkey, langur, hyena, jackal, wild boar, antelope, wild cat, wolf, sloth bear, chital or spotted deer and barking deer. Wild buffalo locally called “Arna” is found in the KoshiTappu region. The western Terai jungles of Suklaphanta is home of the of swamp deer, while the endangered blackbucks are found in the Bardia region. Nepal Government has made an effort to preserve blackbucks by declaring an area of 15.95 sq. km. in Bardia as Blackbuck Conservation Area. Nepal even has its own variety of dolphins found in the fresh waters of Narayani and Karnali rivers. The Himalayan region is also home to the elusive snow leopard and the red panda. Red panda, a rare sight because of its shy nature, may be found from Langtang region to Kanchenjunga region. Other mammals that live in high altitude areas are yak, blue sheep, Himalayan tahr and musk deer.  While otters are found in the Rara region north west, the Dhorpatan hunting grounds is home of the blue sheep and Himalayan tahr.

Reptiles: Nepal has two indigenous species of crocodile: the fish eating gharial with the long narrow snout and the marsh mugger which is omnivorous, eating anything it can catch. A very successful breeding project has brought the gharial back from extinction. Some of the snakes found in Nepal are: cobras, kraits, vipers and the Indian python. Other reptiles found in the country are turtles and monitor lizards. Some of these reptiles can be seen in the Chitwan National Park and Bardia National Park.

Birds: Nepal has more than 850 recorded species of birds. Amazingly, half of these birds can be seen in and around the Kathmandu valley alone. The hills around the valley especially Nagarjun, Godavari and Phulchowki are popular birding areas. Phulchowki at 2,760 m boasts about 90 bird species including the endemic spiny babbler, which was thought to be extinct until it was spotted in Nepal. Another rare species of bird, the red-headed trogan, was also sighted here in April 2000.

National parks like Chitwan and Bardia harbor a wide variety of birds too. In Chitwan, endangered vultures are being protected from contaminated food by establishing “Vulture Restaurant” which feeds them safe carcasses. The KoshiTappu region is home to a large species of resident and migratory birds. It has about 26 varieties of ducks alone. About 485 species have been sighted here, including black ibis, honey kites, ospreys, black headed orioles, peregrine falcon, partridges, ruddy shelduck, storks, vultures and eagles among others.In the higher Himalayan region are found different species of the raptors and birds of prey. Nepal’s national bird, the Danphe or impeyen pheasant, is also found in the Himalayan region. A rare bird known as jerdon’sbaza was sighted in Nepal. Over the past few years a conservation group has worked specifically in the Lumbini area to conserve the sarus crane.

For more information about Nepal’s wildlife, Please visit: http://www.dnpwc.gov.np/ (official web site of the Department of National Parks & Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests & Soil Conservation).

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/wildlife.html#sthash.TAO8p4AF.dpuf

-Nepal is one of the largest concentrations of Royal Bengal Tiger in the world

-Second largest population of one horned rhino are found in Nepal

-Nepal has one of the best habitat for snow leopard

-Shukla Phanta is the West Nepal harbours the world largest heard of swamp deer

- It is said that Nepal has the largest moth in the world (Atlas Moth)

-Some of the largest wild honey bees are found in Nepal

-The only nature breeding ground of the Long Snouted Gavial crocodile exists in Nepal

-Nepal constitutes more than 8.5% of the world’s total bird species

-Nepal constitutes more than 850 species of birds, which arguably more than the whole continent of Europe and North Africa combined .

-Spiny Babbler is the only bird that is found in Nepal

-Nepal has 4.2% of the world’s butterfly species which is oover 500 species of butterflies.

 

PLANTS

Of the total number of species found globally, Nepal possesses 2.80 percent plants. Record from 2006 shows that Nepal has 6,391 flowering plant species, representing 1,590 genera and 231 families. Nepal’s share of flowering plant species is 2.76 percent of the global total compared to earlier records of 2.36 percent. Nepal’s share of pteriodophytes is 5.15 percent compared to earlier records of 4.45 percent.

There are 2,532 species of vascular plants represented by 1,034 genera and 199 families in the protected sites. Some 130 endemic species are found in the protected sites.

For ecology and vegetation purpose Nepal could be divided into four floristic regions i.e. (a) western (b) north-western (c) central, and (d) eastern, and bio-climatically these are broken down into twenty regions from humid tropical climate to the arid, alpine regions.

There are 399 endemic flowering plants in Nepal of which about 63 percent are from the high mountains, 38 percent from the mid hills, and only 5 percent from the Terai and Siwaliks. Similarly, the central region contains 66 percent of the total endemic species followed by 32 percent in the western and 29 percent in the eastern regions.

Medicinal Plants: The Himalayas are famous for medicinal plants and have even been mentioned in the Aurveda. Many of the herbs and plants found in the Himlayas are used in traditional healing systems like Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic, Amchi etc. Some of these plants are even used for allopathic medicine. Medicinal plants are abundantly found in: theTerai region of Nawalparasi, Chitwan, Bardia, Dhanusha, mid hill region of Makhwanpur, Syangja, Kaski, Lamgjung, Dolakha, Parvat, Ilam, Ramechhap, Nuwakot, and the Himalayan region of Dolpa, Mugu, Humla, Jumla, Manang, Mustang and Solukhumbu.

Orchids: In ancient Rome, Theophrastus, a student of Plato, was intrigued by the sight of a plant with a pair of roots. Orchis was the name he gave them, the Greek word for testicles. Worldwide, there are some 500 to 600 genera and some 20,000 to 35,000 names, the largest of all plant families, and out of this, Nepal has 57 genera (27 Terrestrials and 30 Epiphytic) with a few Lithophytes.Nepal is endowed with an incredible variety of orchids scattered across the country. Dedrobium is the largest species, followed by Habenaria and Bulbophyllum. Anthogonium, Hemipilia and Lusia are some of the other varieties amongst the nearly two dozen single species families.

For more information about Nepal’s plant resources, Please visit: http://www.dpr.gov.np/ (official web site of the Department of Plant Resources, Ministry of Forests & Soil Conservation).

- See more at: http://www.welcomenepal.com/plan-your-trip/plants.html#sthash.wAhpLt8w.dpuf

 

-Nepal occupies only 0.1% of the Earth’s landmass, but as per the size of the country, she possesses one of the riches genetic biodiversity in the world

-Nepal has the world’s maximum physiographic and climatic diversity ranging from the tropical to Nivaltype( permanent snow)

-Kaligandaki is the older than Himalayas. Therefore, it acts as a major ecological dividing line of the whole eastern and western Himalayas

-Because of its outstanding altitudinal variation, there are many opportunities to farm any plants from any parts of the world in Nepal

-Nepal is Amazon of Asia. The hidden treasure of its rich biodiversity is not yet fully explored. Many new species could be discovered from Nepal

-Nepal harbours nearly 6000 species of flowering plants which covers around 2.4%of the world’s total

-36% of the world’s Meconopsi species’ poppy’ including Blue Poppies are found in Nepal of which four are endemic, only to be found in Nepal. In Nepal, one of the Blue poppy grows as high as 5400 meters’ altitude. This is perhaps one of the highest limits for the poppy to be found in the world

-Edelweiss is the Austria’s national flower. In Austria, it is almost extinct in the wild but found abundantly in Langtang valley.

-Nepal has more thhan 360 species of orchid which constitute over 2% of the world’s orchid.

-Nepal comprises 6% of the world’s rhododendron species.

-Over 250 species of the flowering plants are endemic to Nepal (not found elsewhere)

-Nepal has the record of the tallest grassland in the world that exists in Chitwan.

-Sal tree forest (Shorea Robust) in Chitwan is considered as the finest in the world (Champion)

-Dr. Francis Hamilton first initiated plant exploration in Nepal in 1802 in Kathmandu valley followed by Nathanial Wallich in 1820.

-Nepal has one of the richest contribution and distribution of biomaterials in the world. Lots have yet to be explored for the economic benefits of the country.

- World is much sought after Ayurved. Nepal has an incredible wealth of medicacinal and aromatic plants for plants for the preparation of traditional and Ayurvedic medicines.

-Genetic resources related to present day to day crop species of Nepal has tremendous potential for improvement of numerous valuable plants.

CULTURE

Customs and traditions differ from one part of Nepal to another. A conglomeration lies in capital city Kathmandu where cultures are blending to form a national identity. Kathmandu Valley has served as the country’s cultural metropolis since the unification of Nepal in the 18th Century.A prominent factor in a Nepali’s everyday life is religion. Adding color to the lives of Nepalis are festivals the year round which they celebrate with much pomp and joy. Food plays an important role in the celebration of these festivals.

Religion: Nepal was declared a secular country by the Parliament on May 18, 2006. Religions practiced in Nepal are: Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism, Sikhism, Bon, ancestor worship and animism. The majority of Nepalis are either Hindus or Buddhism. The two have co-existed in harmony through centuries.

Buddha is widely worshipped by both Buddhists and Hindus of Nepal. The five DhyaniBuddhas; Vairochana, Akshobhaya, Rathasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi, represent the five basic elements: earth, fire, water, air and ether. Buddhist philosophy conceives these deities to be the manifestations of Sunya or absolute void. Mahakaala and Bajrayogini are Vajrayana Buddhist deities worshipped by Hindus as well.

Hindu Nepalis worship the ancient Vedic gods. Bramha the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer, are worshipped as the Supreme Hindu Trinity. People pray to the Shiva Linga or the phallic symbol of Lord Shiva in most Shiva temples. Shakti, the dynamic element in the female counterpart of Shiva, is highly revered and feared. 

Mahadevi, Mahakali, Bhagabati, Ishwari are some of the names given. Kumari, the Virgin Goddess, also represents Shakti.Other popular deities are Ganesh for luck, Saraswati for knowledge, Lakshmi for wealth and Hanuman for protection. Krishna, believed to be the human incarnation of Lord Vishnu is also worshipped widely. Hindu holy scripts Bhagawat Gita, Ramayan and Mahabharat are widely read in Nepal. Vedas, Upanishads and other holy scriptures are read by well learne